How Satanic Genius Goes To Deceive Man From God’s Path?

By Dr.P.R.palodhi

After the leader of Jinn tribe, Iblis seduced Adam and Eve in the Garden, God called him as Satan (Qur’an, 20:120). Thereafter, in relation to mankind’s affairs on earth – Satan turned into an antithesis of Creator God. The word ‘Satan’ implies inveterate enemy – primarily to God and Prophets, secondarily to men; it is also analogous to ‘Devil’ signifying ‘slanderer of God to men and of men to God’.

Satan swore to corrupt God’s Path: ‘My Lord! Because Thou has sent me to astray, I verily shall adorn the path of error for them (i.e. people) in the earth and shall mislead them everyone, save such of them as are Thy perfectly devoted slaves’ (Q, 15: 39). Since God created mankind as essentially a dependent creature, if someone is not accepting the “God’s Path revealed to Prophets” – he/she has to fall “under the spells of Satan.”

As water is sent down from high above to impregnate the variegated creations on the earth, and likewise from heaven the Divine knowledge is infused to the different faculties of man’s consciousness in earth: ‘… Which God hath spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began’ (Acts, 3: 21). The knowledge of God was ancestrally inherited by both pre-human Jinns and humans in earth since when the earth was of one language and one speech (Gen, 11: 1-8). God has sent Messengers/Angels also to the pre-human Jinns (Q, 6:130), but most of the Jinn tribes under Satan’s spell rejected it and turned to Paganism of extravagant lies about God (Q, 72). Mme Blavatsky had access to the “Book of Dzyan” that belongs to pre-human tradition; from there she wrote ‘The Secret Doctrine’. It is not difficult to conceive from her book how pre-human Jinns have had the knowledge of early creational steps before humankind (Insaan) which they mention as Lunar pitris, Sweat-born, and Egg-born etc and a great deal about Chohans (lords in Tibetan), Pitris (Skt. fathers), Jivas (Skt. spirits), Prana (to breathe), bhuta (phantom), Monad (Ätma-Budhhi) etc – but we get no clear significance of the Creator God. This suggested the ‘God denying’ mode of pre-human Jinns which had been maintained till today via successive crops of pagan geniuses. The early impact of Satanic mode could be estimated from the fermenting animations of false god-hoods (polytheism) around the world – where none of their divinity could express the totality of the Divine. The process of pagan deifications encompasses almost every aspect of known fields: celestial creations (sun, moon, and stars etc); the nature and natural events (land, mountain, sea, lightning, thunders, storm, earthquake, plants and animals etc); necessities (medicine, agriculture, husbandry, hunting, harvest, brewing, matrimony, childbirth, fertility, wealth and happiness etc); creative skills (music, arts and knowledge etc); wonders (astronomy, astrology, magic and witchcraft etc). Thus various forms of Paganism kept mushrooming in different places and at different times without clear guidance about ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ in religion.

Satanic deceptions in religion proceed as “concealed mystery” in the Mythological yarns (i.e. forging lies upon grounds of truth). This has been further attested when Adam Weishaupt, the founder of the Illuminati, writes, “Of all the means I know to lead men, the most effectual is a concealed mystery. The hankering of the mind is irresistible; and if once a man has taken it into his head that there is a mystery in a thing, it is impossible to get it out, either by argument or experience. And then, we can so change notions by merely changing a word. What more contemptible than fanaticism; but call it enthusiasm; then add the little word noble, and you may lead him over the world.” But such surreptitious mode is totally incompatible with straight Path of God’s chosen Prophets; hence we find that Satan’s religious deceptions arise exclusively via pagan geniuses who ascend by rejecting the Prophets of God. Elitism of such geniuses has exalted in all ages either by denying God or by defiling God – and surely their intentions get exposed whenever they have tried to deliver something in religion right from ancient polytheism down to modern pantheism, theosophy, mystical insights or ‘rationality’ under pretexts of freedom of thinking’ etc. And all their inventions are invariably parasitical – because they get-up-and-go after knowing ‘what to deny’.

I. Corruption of “Heaven’s Truth”

Pre-human Jinns used to steal the secrets of heaven (Q, 72:8) and with this pilfered knowledge they invented God denying astrology with innumerable gods, goddesses and stars as the rulers of heavenly and earthly phenomena – who decide the destiny of people and societies, rather than laws of God to give man the power to learn and use natural phenomena beneficially.Their inadequate knowledge delivered to man as astrological astronomy proves to be out of the religious contexts and twisted more with falsehoods than are straightened with truth. After creation of Adam the Prophetic religion of God began, but Satan’s Paganism then became parasitic upon several aspects of Prophetic religion. The glaring example is the ‘Temple of God’ that began since the time of Prophet Adam; and in world after the Flood – the temple and the sacred stone of Ka’ba have been the vital aspects of Prophetic religions. Such temples are not found as the basic forte of remotely ancient Pagans – though antique ‘stone cultures’ and megalithism are scattered around the world. Now as we compare the later age temple cultures of Prophetic religion of the Semites and polytheistic Pagans, various intriguing parallels between them suggest that Paganism adopted the temple culture from Prophetic tradition – but filling their temples with images, idols and astral divinities that are only false gods and ‘not the God’. Hence God reveals: ‘What are these images, to which you are so assiduously devoted?’ (Q, 21:52); ‘… beware of them lest they beguile you from any of that teaching which God sent down to you’ (Q, 5: 49); ‘It is those who believe not in the Signs of God, that forge falsehood: it is they who lie’ (Q, 16: 105)

God has warned mankind: ‘Invent not similitude for God; for God knows, and you know not.’ (Qur’an, 16: 74). But pseudo-religious human fancies keep on inventing similitude for God; and such heresies are set up via spoilers rising from both Prophetic and pagan tradition. They say they believe in God but deny God’s command by ascribing partners unto Him or inventing profane syncretism of something other than the God. Thus pre-human Jinn race or even Prophet Jesus is being promoted in Christianity as the sons of God (when God begets none). Buddha, by dismissing God and His Prophets, exalting as sole decider of religious truths “outside Buddha’s dispensation there is no saint” (Dhammapada:254). When God commands to enjoin ‘good’ and condemn ‘evil’ – to erase the difference between ‘good’ and ‘evil’ pagan geniuses introduced the pantheistic ‘Brahma’ philosophy where: Divine is present in Nature and in each one of us; and when deity is all things then He can be worshiped in all things irrespective of the concern for ‘good’ and ‘evil’. As we turn to pagan gods and goddesses, they set their terms of necromancy, mythology, and demonology, black magic or black art by the agency of evil spirits, and white magic of human trickeries in all polytheistic religions of antiquity. The practice of necromancy initiated the belief that after death the Soul continues to exist on earth, and the possession of a superior knowledge by the disembodied spirit, and the possibility of communication between the living and the dead. But in God’s revelation, no Jinn god or human is capable of reincarnating at will: ‘when death approaches one of you, Our angels take his Soul, and they never fail in their duty’ (Q, 6:61). Soul cannot live on earth after worldly death, but the Jinn race still has some arcane power that continues to deceive people by making the cases of simulated ‘reincarnations’ or reborn ghostly souls etc – which but remain as freak magic by failing to reflect in the walks of life. Their corruptions of Heaven’s truth reached to peak when they revamped the cults of ancestral female deities by telling ‘Mother goddess’ as female principles of the Divine – when God reveals Himself in masculine gender Who never has any wife (Q, 72:3), and has warned that those who call even the ‘Angels’ as female are blasphemous (Q, 53: 27).

All invented pagan simulations of God are utter breaches of guideline that God has revealed to the Prophets. Thus they fulfill Satan’s goal, but followers tried to justify that ‘all paths of religion lead to God’ – although their paths enjoin mankind with the profane Paganism of the pre-human Jinns, and never with God’s Path. As religion drift away from the God’s Path, it turns into un-religion or irreligion which tries to inflate by reckoning God as ‘harmless’. The Pagan Ethic (also called the Wiccan Rede) proclaims: ‘If it harms none, do what you will’ – following this code, Pagan theology is based primarily on experience, with the aim of Pagan ritual to make contact with the divine in the world that surrounds them. But history reveals how many Pagan civilizations of the past have been punished by the God which are perished, only some exist now as museum relics; and God has revealed the consequences of human recalcitrance:

“Deeds after the manner of the people of Pharaoh and those before them”: They treated as false the Signs of their Lord so we destroyed them for their crimes, and We drowned the people of Pharaoh: for they were oppressors and wrong doers.’ (Q, 8: 54);’And to how many populations did I give respites, which were given to wrong-doing? In the end I punish them. To Me is the destination of all.’ (Q, 22: 48)

II. Corruption of New World’s Prophetic traditions and Scriptures

Successive Prophetic missions of early Judaism and their religious wars eradicated many of the aberrant races of gods and pagan monuments from the older world. Yet ancient pagan ways evidently developed many parallelisms and corrupted the religious base of Judeo-Christianity, pre-Vedic Sanatan Dharma and pre-Buddhist Taoism etc. Indo-Iranians knew Asura/Ahura (a cognate of Yahweh) as the Supreme Creator God. But after the schism with Zoroastrian followers of Ahura Mazda, gradually Vedic seers began to vilify Asura as demon and devas were made exalted and worshiped as esteemed gods of Vedism. Buddhism corrupted the base of Taoism after Buddhists infiltrated and managed to play a significant role in China land by coalescing with Confucian, neo-Confucian and Taoist traditions to form a complex multi-religious ethos. History begins to unfold the potentiality of deep rooted Paganism – as Christianity makes a fresh start in newer world upon the ground of flourishing Aryan population that has been paganized long ago via intermixing with the pre-existing folks.

Satanic spells continued to inflict damage on the last two people of Book (Christians and Muslims) where the roles of ‘secret adversaries’ often remained traceable. Clement of Alexandria (150-214 AD) and his successor Origen (185- 254 AD), the most important theologian of early Christianity after Augustine, were the pupil of the mysterious monk Ammonius Sakkas (300 AD) who was an advocate of oriental paganism and Buddha. God-denying Buddha (known as Jina-lankara [1] i.e. Jewel of the Jinas) initiated great gathering of Arhats (4th degree Initiates) – who claimed to have achieved liberation via mode of self-enlightening. Buddhist monks (‘dharma-bhanakas’) were traipsing across Asia; travelling the Silk and Spice Routes they spread their doctrines all the way from Khotan in central Asia to Antioch and Alexandria in the west. One such visit is documented in 20 BC in Athens. A Buddhist philosopher, Zarmarus, even made a doctrinal point by setting himself alight. Origen goes to inform that (in ‘Commentary on Ezekiel’) Buddhists co-existed with Druids in pre-Christian Britain: “The island (Britain) has long been predisposed to it (Christianity) through the doctrines of the Druids and Buddhists, who had already inculcated the doctrine of the unity of the Godhead” (that corrupts sacred ‘Oneness of God’s Facets’ via prorfane syncretism between God and His created Jinn gods). Evidence suggests that the Church Fathers were acquainted with Buddhist beliefs and practices, though it is unclear as to the extent to which these may have influenced the formation of Christian doctrine. Mystical spirituality of Gnosticism seduced Christianity notably with Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Hippolytus, Epiphanius and Plotinus etc. In the late 19th and 20th centuries, new roles of Mandaeans, Manichaean texts and nag Hammadi codices etc led to reconstruction of Gnosticism. Rather than being a single tradition origination from One God, Christianity’s development points toward enormous variety leading to new groupings of texts and traditions, each with different intellectual and sociological histories.

Evidently the categorical corruptions of ‘Prophetic Hebrew words’ have devitalized millennia old Prophetic tradition to such extent that Christian scholastic appears now as if utterly ignorant of the basic creational aspects of God! Thus they continued to project Satan as a fallen Angel, and his tribes as Angels (Rev, 12:29) or ‘sons of God’ who used to marry daughters of men (Gen, 6:2-7) etc. God reminded in Islam: (I) Angels are created at first from light all at once who do not reproduce (like Jinns and humans), they are emissaries of God who never sin, they are free from thirst and hunger, and do not grow or develop via aging process; (II) Jinns, celestial or earth bound, are created from fire before humans, enjoy a period of freedom upon earth, and reproduce and have thirst and hunger like men; Jinns are of three types: flying, stationed in one area, and animals like creeping and dogs etc; and surely God created human-like forms among the Jinn kind (rijaalim-minal-Jinni, Q,72:6), that is why God permitted Jinn race to share wealth and children with Adamites (Q, 17: 64). God clearly mentioned the name of Satan as ‘Iblis’ who is from Jinn tribe (Q, 18: 50). But Bible’s root of corruption goes so deep that from Josephus (Antiquities 1.73) or the authors of Jubilees and present Biblical writings continued equating so called “sons of God” with the Angels, even in a sexual context. As regard such blasphemous expressions in Bible, William Henry Green quoted (in Birney, p. 45): “the whole conception of sexual life, as connected with God or Angels, is absolutely foreign to Hebrew thought”. In Bible (Mat, 22:30) indicates that Angels do not marry.

The Hebrew Bible gives us no reason to believe that Angels have a gender or are able to reproduce. Such opportunistic eulogy like Jinns as Angels or sons of God are likely outcomes of direct interventions of the ‘Jinn-agents’ at some point during formalizations of Biblical doctrine – which have been decided not by the near apostles but by holding the Councils (similar to Buddhism). Aftermath of Biblical tradition clearly shows that the Christianity has deviated in several respects from the revealed path of Prophet Abraham and Prophet Moses; and secret adversaries of God have ascended to such height that the revealed Hebrew name God is often being replaced by a fancied name like “Jehovah” (unknown to Jesus who called God as Eli) and Prophet (Jesus) is being misrepresented as the son of God – when Jesus used to call himself as “son of man” (ref. S. Mark 2:10). Christianity’s pagan geniuses have tried their best to overthrow the God’s final Revelation Qur’an and patronize ‘realm of theology’ exclusively within their updated Bible. All such blasphemy in Biblical tradition gave rise to Muslims’ severe criticism. Believers must not forget that Allah Himself protects Qur’an because it is the final Revelation for mankind; and He did not do so in the case of previous scriptures because He put believers as well on trial (Q, 23: 30) and exposes the corruptors. But some Muslims geniuses try to escalate rivalry by nagging criticism of Bible without trying to identify the corruptors. Believers may serve better for the cause of Allah’s penultimate and ultimate Revelations by recovering the original Hebrew words and then reflecting to authentic ‘revealed words’ in Arabic. Satanic modes operate not only by defiling the ‘Prophetic words’ but also by devitalizing the tradition via sectarian rivalry.

Islam had been divided into various sects: Sunni and Shiite, and from latter arose Baha’i, Ismailia and Ahamadiya etc. The bigot sectarianism in both traditions goes to serve the Satan’s aim of jeopardizing the cardinal massages of Bible and Qur’an; as a result both scriptures are now being used more often for the cause of narrow sectarian ascendancy rather than serving the universal cause of God. The Satanic power is incapacitated to defile Qur’an; but the evil that could corrupt millennia old Biblical tradition – can also exalt in the very name of God and make inroad into much younger tradition of Islam; such spell is quite evident – this has categorically depleted the vitality of ‘ilm in God’s Revelation (Q, 29:19) by restricting Qur’an and Islam within Muslim religious laws. Imam Ghazali (d. 1111 AD) has pointed that reductionism (takhsis) is the one major cause that deviated (tahrif) Muslims from the true knowledge of Qur’an. When God commanded believers to join together in mutual enjoining of Truth (tawaasaw bil-Haqqi) along with good deeds, patience and constancy (Q, 103:3) – secret ‘adversaries’ in both Christians and Muslims are cleverly fulfilling Satan’s goal of devitalizing believers by ‘escalating the internal rifts within among the fraternal ‘Semitic tradition of the Prophets’. The present Muslims show clear signs of lapses without vitality of early Muslims’ sacred brilliance. And modern Christianity is no more heedful to God, instead is largely disposed to the paganized Christian brilliance. Thus both are drifting away from the holistic Truth; such spell of religious darkness within God’s tradition cannot usurp in unless Satan and his hands gain ascendancy in the Prophetic traditions, and are able to manipulate by steering them from within.

The Divine Trial of mankind (Q, 39: 49) is a process under the spell of both ‘good’ (that comes via Prophetic missions) and ‘evil’ (adversaries of the Prophets) agencies. Hence arrival of Prophet is accompanied by the appearance of open and secret enemies of God (devils) among people:

‘Likewise We have appointed unto every prophet an adversary – devils among men and Jinns, inspiring each other with flowery discourses by way of deceptions. If thy Lord willed, they would not do so; so leave them alone with their devising. That the heart of those who believe not in the Hereafter may incline thereto, and that they may take pleasure therein. And that they may earn what they are earning.’ (Q,6: 112-113)

III. Modern geniuses behind religious darkness of our age

God reveals: ‘If you obeyed most of those on Earth, they would misguide you from God’s way. They follow nothing but conjecture. They are only guessing.'(Q, 6: 116); ‘The unbelievers… are like the depths of darkness in a vast deep ocean, overwhelmed with billow topped by billow, topped by dark clouds: depths of darkness, one above another: if a man stretches out his hand, he can hardly see it! For any to whom God giveth not light, there is no light.’ (Q, 24: 30)

Prophet Jesus reminded us about the ‘last days of Devil’ when Satan and his hands shall struggle most to disengage man from God’s Path. It is apparent that religion in present age has turned into mere fancied customs and chauvinism of the different sects. The modern learning is teeming with skepticism about verity of God’s Revelation in religion and validity of religious wisdom. The guise of irreligious syncretism and conceptual schemes of ‘ism’ ranging from rationalism to existentialism clutter the modern thought and prevent understanding of the ‘perennial truths’ by which humanity has to go on living. In absence of God’s Light the religious darkness intensifies – leading to ‘total rejection of God’. And this very aim is evident from the following modus operandi of the modern human geniuses operating under Satan’s spell:

  • The primary job of the ‘adversaries’ is to prevent people from knowing the very Name revealed by the God Himself — so that man fails to grasp the Divine cord’ that enjoins him with the Creator. Prophets bring the name of God in respective tradition, and adversaries replace it with names invented via syncretism of mythical, mystical or philosophical fancies – thus human fancy tends to override the truth. In this context, Sanatan Dharma of Hinduism long before told us that in Kali-age only mode by which man can relate to God — is the ‘Name of God’ (traceable in ‘Vishnu Dharmottara Puran’ even after its Sanskritization); and this has also been reminded in Qur’an (87: 14-15). But in Hinduism updated by Vedic Aryans, unfortunately we find that the ‘Name of God’ has no relevance to sectarian fancies (like Brahma-Vishnu-Siva or female Sakti cults etc). These pagan equations cleverly deviate from the God-centric essence of ‘ekamevaditiyum’ (One without second) or the Supreme ‘Purisha’ (masculine aspect) echoing in all self Revelations from God (Judeo-Christianity to Islam). The Aryan languages captivated modern minds with generalized words like ‘God’ (and its aliases in other Aryan dialects) – implied sense of which depends more on human fancies than that of truth. After replacing ‘revealed name’, it becomes easier to resist God’s Message and introduce the pseudo religious claims of human inventions. But this is not so possible with the self Revelations from Ahura/Yahweh-Elohim/Allah in the respective Prophetic tongues – because there is consistency of universally ‘abiding religious principles’.
  • Adversaries discard the Divine omnipotence and its sacred purpose by relentlessly promoting notions that ‘man is the supreme and nothing could be above him’. This tends to stone blind the visions of human enquiry by placing ‘profane subjectivity’ at the centre of reality and they deny any knowledge that proceeds not in the same fashion; as if intelligence allows not mind to extend any further than ‘horizontal existentialism’ – where man is distinguished from animal by mere human style of infra-human intelligence. Thereby people become destitute of the vision of the ‘pre-mental Truths’ behind existence, and remain confined within apparent brilliance of parochial claims, opinions and conjectures of frail human individualism. Inordinate fidelity to ‘human point of views’ in fact divorces man from the ways of the Divine, our natural instincts are atrophied within limits of ‘temporal relativism of the day’ – and we deny ourselves of both liberty and intelligence. Thus Satan accomplishes its goal of aborting man’s vertical consciousness in sole priorities for a horizontal existence of this life’s pomp and pleasures.
  • Truths can be evaded by erasing the roots. Hence, in order to blot out ‘truth’ they introduce deceptive ‘starting points’ in religion and history – so that future generations get disengaged from the very ‘roots’ of causality. This deception comes from the overweening authors who rise to explain religion and genesis of mankind by turning a blind eye to the: I) authenticities of ‘revealed words’ and scriptures in terms of posteriori sequel of God’s Revelations; II) the consistent ways of ‘revealed wisdom’ from that of the inconsistent doctrines of human fancies; and III) validity of ‘revealed Truths’ in aftermath of human history. Their overtures in religion turn out to be more truth-escaping maneuvers than that of truth-seeking.
  • Next step is to entice the human brilliance to ‘move on the surface’ playing with the mental images without knowing possibilities and role of religious truth. Such surface brilliance easily exalt as cult figures to the plebeian ignorance by attracting and absorbing the sentimental issues – then cults of ‘genius’ and ‘culture’ count as much as or more than the truth. In this way the very idea of truth is called in question by welcoming the spirit of doubt and denial, and weakening thereby contemplative intelligence and religious instinct already ingrained in basic human nature. The result is the present age of religious darkness marked by corruptions of the best of the brilliant lots (corruptio optimi pressima). Profane human brilliance solicitous of ascendancy strays into artificial doctrines by denying metaphysical and initiatory realities – which finally become reduced to its most external elements, viz. literalism and sentimentality. Thus increasing volumes of ‘literature’ tend to overwhelm religious perspective by recoiling with exaggerated importance to more or less futile activities of every kind – but carefully avoiding the very “one thing necessary” in religion – “God’s Revelation”, the reference for finite man in relation to infinite.
  • The Path of God is straight irrespective of human volitions and sentiments; but Satan’s route is serpentine. Satanic hands orchestrate artificial oppositions (e.g. heretic-theism / atheism; creationism / evolution; gnosticism / agnosticism; polytheism / pantheism etc) of thesis and anti-thesis, but keeping both under control – so that synthesis only serves vested interests but not the cause of Truth. And people thereby continue to gyrate in the whirl pools of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis without the awareness of gravitating toward the requirements of causality and the Truth.

IV. God has reminded mankind:

‘Does Man think that he will be left uncontrolled, without purpose?’ (Q, 75:36);’Does Man think that We cannot assemble his bones? Nay, We are able to put together in perfect order the very tips of his fingers.’ (Q, 75:3-4);’Do they not think that they will be raised up? On a mighty Day, a Day when all mankind will stand before the Lord of the worlds.’ (Q, 83:4-6);’That will be a Day of sorting out! We shall gather you together and those before you.’ (Q, 77:38); ‘Then shall anyone who has done an atom’s weigh of good, see it! And anyone who has done an atom’s weight of evil, shall see it.’ (Q, 99: 7-8);’And the Book of Deeds will be placed before you; and thou wilt see in great terror because of what is recorded therein; they will say, “Ah! Woe to us! What a book is this! It leaves out nothing small or great, but takes account thereof!” They will find all that they did, are placed before them: and not will thy Lord treat with injustice.” (Q, 18: 49);’Record of the Wicked is preserved in “Sijjin”; ‘Record of the Righteous is preserved in “IIIiyin” (Qur’an, 83:6 & 18);’Verily unto us belong the End and the Beginning. Therefore do I warn you of a Fire blazing fiercely. None shall burn therein but those most unfortunate ones – who give the lie to Truth and turn their backs. But those increase in self-purification, and have in their minds no favour from anyone for which a reward is expected in return, but only desire to seek for the Countenance of their Lord Most high; and soon will they attain complete satisfaction.’ (Qur’an, 92: 13)


1. Jina-lankara (Buddharakkhita; 1200 AD): This poem of 278 verses gives an account of the Buddha’s life up until his enlightenment. (Pali Literature and Language, (PLL) by Wilhelm Geiger (New Delhi: Oriental Books, 1978, p.41)

* All cited and referred verses are from: ‘The Holy Qur’an’ – Translated by Abdullah Yusuf Ali. (Transliteration in Roman Script by M.A.H. Eliyasee; with Original ‘Arabic Text / English translation by Abdullah Yusuf Ali). Islamic Book Service. New Delhi 110002, India. 2000. ISBN: 81-85738-04-1

Silver Jewelry – Learning About the Varied Types

Silver is available in myriad forms these days. It is helpful to keep yourself updated about the various types of silver for making informed choices about your purchases. In the following details, you can find information on the different types of silver that are used in manufacturing jewelry worldwide.

Firstly, it is important to understand that silver is alloyed with other metals or elements during the manufacturing of the jewels. There are various reasons for producing different alloys of silver and these are studied in the following details.

Secondly, the quality of the silver can be ascertained through a quality stamp that is viewable on the finished pieces. Some companies indulge in fraudulent markings, but these are rare cases. You need magnifying glasses for observing these minute stamps. It may also be kept in mind that jewels are required to contain stamps only if adequate space is available. Therefore, jewels of small size may remain unstamped even if they are of good quality.

In the following details, you can gather information on the various standards of quality stamps pertaining to silver jewels.

1. Fine (.999)

This is the purest form of silver and comprised of 99.9% of silver. The remainder 0.1% contains traces of other elements. Fine silver is soft; gray in color; has a dull look; its luster is known to be more glass-like than polished sterling silver items. Also, it develops scratches or dents easily. Therefore, they are not commonly used in jewels because they do not wear properly.

However, there are several benefits of using silver. The metal can be cast easily; fuses without soldering; and does not tarnish easily.

As a result of its soft texture, its use in necklaces and earrings is more popular than bracelets and rings that are scratched often. Products of silver clay are forged into fine silver; they have caused a rise in demand for silver jewelry in the United States. Fine silver jewels have stamps of.999 FS or only.999. Also, the Hill Tribe varieties of silver are of.999 quality.

2. Sterling (.925)

Within the United States and other countries worldwide, sterling is the standard quality of jewelry. Sterling silver jewelry contains 92.5 % of silver. Other metals such as nickel and copper constitute the remainder 7.5%.

It is important to add other metals to the alloys for hardening the metal, increasing its durability and making the jewels gleam – all in a bid for enticing the clients.

Mostly, we are familiar with the silver shades of sterling silver. It has a shiny look, but it is susceptible to tarnish. For preserving your jewels in pristine condition for long durations, sterling silver jewels should be polished on a regular basis.

When comparing the hardness of sterling silver and fine silver, the former is found to be harder. However, sterling silver is softer than many of the other metals.

Sterling silver jewels have stamps of.925.

3. Non-Tarnishable Alloys

The non-tarnish varieties of alloys have been introduced recently. Amongst the many brands, Argentium produces these alloys. Normally, they consist of 92.5% silver, but some branded items rate higher in silver content. The rest of the alloys are fabricated using metals such as copper and germanium.

Germanium has the ability to harden the alloy and make them tarnish-resistant. However, non-tarnish alloys are tarnish-able under intense conditions and over a period of time. The good news is that they do not require as much maintenance as sterling silver. Their resistance to tarnish is the primary benefit of these metals.

However, it is also notable that the metal Argentium does not require soldering for its forging. But, there are drawbacks related to Argentium. The metal is costlier and not as readily available as compared to Sterling silver. Also, the metal is not distinguishable from Sterling silver because it bears a stamp of.925. Jewelry producers also have to apply for getting the authority to stamp the Argentium mark on their pieces. Additionally, the stamp is large in size and cannot be used on jewels.

4. Coin

Coin silver was an alloy that was commonly available in the US in the past. Nowadays, it is rarely found because people get confused with its name.

‘Coin silver’ denotes that the silver content is 90% silver; the rest 10% is made of copper. Coins were not manufactured with this metal; rather it was produced from scrap coins during earlier times.

Money coins in several countries do not contain silver, but they are constituted from other cheaper metal varieties. Collectible items or investment items contain high amounts of silver; they bear the relevant markings and are accompanied with legitimate certificates. Coin silver jewels are stamped with.900 seal. Most of these items are antiques.

5. Silver

There are doubts pertaining to jewelry that is promoted as only ‘silver’. It is best to buy jewels that have clear definitions about the quality standards that they conform to. If these markings are absent, the silver alloys do not rate high in quality. It is the norm for jewelry companies to stamp the jewels if space is available or place quality tags on the finished items.

6. Silver-filling

Silver-filled is the term used for a new layering on the jewels when there was an increase in silver rates through the recession period. It cannot be described as an alloy because of the non-uniformity of the metal content in the pieces. Nevertheless, its surface contains sterling silver.

Silver-filled items contain 5-10% of sterling silver and are fused to the brass base. This metal has not been standardized within the United States as it is newly launched. It cannot be cast because it is layered. The silver layering is thicker as compared to silver plating; but, does not rate higher in quality than many silver alloys. Moreover, it does tarnish. They are soldered using precision instruments and by trained professionals. It is not commonly found in the market these days because the price of silver has come down. There are no standards of stamp quality that have been set for these materials as yet.

7. Silver Plating

Silver-plated jewels consist of a thin level of silver on the top and have used in costume jewelry. They contain only a small amount of silver. They are preferred by some people because they are affordable. Nonetheless, they tarnish within a short span of time. They do not bear quality marks, only the logo of the makers.

8. Nickel

The name ‘silver’ in ‘nickel silver’ is only for the silver color and not the metal. They are alloys comprised primarily of copper; other metals such as zinc or nickel are also contained. Nickel silver is soft, inexpensive and looks similar to Sterling. These alloys can be soldered but the seams are visible.

Nickel silver is also known as German silver or Alpaca silver. Costume jewelry is made of these alloys. Some people are of the opinion that it should be defined as nickel alloy because several people suffer from allergies when subjected to nickel.

9. Tribal

Tribal or Tibetan alloys are also silver in color. They do not contain pure silver and the contents of the alloys are variable. Some varieties also contain toxic metals such as lead that can endanger our lives. Therefore, it is recommended to be precarious when opting for these alloys. However, they can enhance your appearance and should be chosen for their designs and not value for money.

10. Mexican, Thai, and Bali

Countries such as Mexico, Thailand, and Bali produce silver in large amounts. However, you should check the quality stamps before purchasing them. They are also known to produce low-grade alloys. The name of the country places no guarantee about the quality of the items.

Testing the Quality of Silver

The amount of silver in alloys can be determined by conducting 2 tests.

Where X-Ray testing is concerned, it is non-destructive, requires costly equipment and has to be performed in a laboratory. The results are only moderately accurate. Precise results are not possible because of the metal layers and plating.

Assay testing is recognized as the optimum test for learning about the silver content in the alloys. It is destructive and requires 0.5 grams of the metal to be melted for determining the ratio of the alloys. The tests are accurate when carried out in a laboratory by skilled workers.

Both these tests do not serve as a suitable option for customers seeking to conduct a test at home. It is advised to always approach renowned dealers that are honest in declaring the materials that are used in the jewels. Quality seals are also handy for learning about the metals and elements that are inbuilt.

Rotary, Retractable and Folding Clothes Lines – What Type of Clothes Line is Best For Me?

There are two main types of clothes lines, Outdoor and indoor. Indoor clotheslines come in basically three different types, Wall mounted, Ceiling mounted and Free Standing frames. Outdoor clotheslines come in four types, Folding Frame or Fold down, Retractable, Fixed Head Rotary and Folding style Rotary.

Outdoor Models.

Fixed Head Rotaries at a glance.

  • Strong and robust.
  • Massive line space.
  • Galvanized wire lines.
  • Good space between lines.
  • Aluminum winders.
  • Needs a lot of yard space.
  • Can be unsightly.
  • Permanently fixed.

Fixed Head Rotary. Fixed head, means that the clothesline can rotate around but cannot fold down and away. Traditionally, Fixed Head Rotary clothes lines are the clotheslines of choice being found in many homes. They are the old style galvanized types with four permanently extended arms that usually wind up and down. You may find that your parents once had or still do have one of these styles. All though these clotheslines have traditionally been the most popular in times past it does not mean that they are the best choice for today. For example more styles of clotheslines have been invented since your parents day and backyards and family needs have changed since then.

The negatives.

Fixed Head Rotary Clotheslines are best suited for yards with a lot of space. The typical Fixed Rotary can have an average of a 4 meter diagonal span with at least an extra 1 meter needed around its revolving perimeter for laundry to blow about. Fixed Rotaries can blow and rotate around a lot in strong winds so you don’t want your expensive laundry items getting snagged on fences or rose bushes etc. Homes these days are usually much smaller in the yard space than the old days and sometimes trying to fit one of these lines into your yard can be a very difficult task indeed. Fixed Rotaries can also be a very unsightly view either with clothes on them or not. So if you live in a neighborhood with prying eyes or you are a very house proud person then take this on board. These days, modern Fixed Rotaries can be purchased specially colored to help make them a more attractive feature for your yard. Because the lines get shorter and shorter as you move closer to the middle of the clothesline, this means that if you wash a lot of sheets then you can only use the outside lines as the inner ones will not be wide enough.

The positives.

Strong and robust are words that they are usually described as. Fixed Rotaries normally have no plastic parts, but sometimes the gear case can be plastic. Usually the gear case which winds the clothesline up and down is made from aluminum which is weather proof and strong. The winder is a help full tool that allows the user to raise the line to help sheets clear the ground, and to lower to aid the user in removing or adding laundry. Folding Rotaries also have this feature. One of the biggest reasons to use one of these lines is because of the massive capability to handle large amounts of laundry at one time. So if you have a lot of people in your home, more than 4, then a rotary will handle your loads. In addition to this, the wire that the clothes are pegged to are made from galvanized steel and so they are much longer lasting than the cord type of the folding or retractable styles. The lines are usually spaced much further apart from each other allowing plenty of air flow between sheets or larger laundry items. This aids drying times. Most Fixed rotaries are available from 4 meter spans up to 6 meter spans with the 6 meter having around 60 meters of line space. Wow, you will probably need to live on acres and have 20 or so kids to justify using one of these. They are usually used in blocks of units or flats nowadays.

Folding Rotaries at a glance.

  • Folds away.
  • Removable.
  • Good line space.
  • Winders.
  • Fits in smaller spaces.
  • Less space between lines.
  • PVC cord.

Folding Rotary. These are basically a modern updated version of the Fixed Head Rotaries but come with features not seen on the old style Fixed Head Rotaries. Such as, the ability to fold the arms away and the complete clothesline removes from a ground socket (usually has a safety cap) and can be stored away to add space to the yard or to remove unsightly clothes lines from a visitors view.

The positives.

The obvious one here is the fact that they foldaway and can be removed. This great feature style usually has a smaller head diameter span, ranging generally from about 3 meters diagonal span to about 4 meters. This is great news for people who need a lot of line space but don’t have enough yard space to fit a Fixed head version in. The line space is still quite large being usually between 40 meters of line space and 50. This is great for families, especially those with youngsters who love playing in the mud. Folding Rotaries usually come with a winder as well to help the user reach the line and yet still raise the line up to keep sheets from dragging on the ground, just like the Fixed Head Rotaries. Most higher quality Folding Rotaries will come with sheet separators on the outer lines to separate a sheet while hanging to allow more air passage to speed up drying times. Some even come with coat hanger hooks so that you can more aptly dry expensive clothing to help minimize creasing in the garment. Every Folding Rotary that i have ever seen is colored in a powder coat, usually green but they are available in many colors to suit your home decor. As an out door clothesline they are usually galvanized underneath the powder coating for long lasting protection from the elements.

The negatives.

All Folding Rotary clothes lines these days come with only a PVC winder as opposed to aluminum ones that are found on the Fixed Rotaries. The reason for this is so that the total weight of the clothesline is minimized to aid the user to remove the clothesline from its ground socket and store. These winders are usually pretty maintenance free though and easy to wind up and down. For a Folding Rotary to actually fold, they need to have the PVC cord style lines in order to be flexible enough to enable the clothesline to fold up. These lines don’t last as long as the more durable galvanized steel wire lines and they can stretch as well. Most higher quality Folding clothes lines have a line tension lock to help keep lines tight. Another negative is that the lines are closer together than the Fixed models. This does not allow drying to be at its optimum compared with the fixed models. The reason they are closer together is to allow for maximum line space and minimum head diameter. A lot of cheaper versions of this style have a lot of plastic components which are totally unnecessary. Choose a higher quality line if you see this kind of feature too much as plastic deteriates in the sun. Black plastic usually has the best UV protection.

Folding Frame clotheslines at a glance.

  • Most popular line style used today.
  • Many variations.
  • Great space saving.
  • Lines close together.
  • PVC lines.
  • Smaller line space.

Folding Frame or Fold Down clotheslines. These are the most popular and modern looking of all types of clotheslines. A fold down is exactly that, it is a rectangular framed clothes line that folds down when not in use. Usually mounted to a wall they also come with optional ground mount kits for use where no suitable wall space is available.

The positives.

These are very discrete clotheslines which, when not in use are not very noticeable especially when they are purchased in the color of your choice to match your surroundings. There are so many different sizes and formats of Fold Down clotheslines that there is one for virtually any conceivable place that you want to put them. Some are big enough to suit a whole family, some will fit on a unit balcony or inside in a laundry, some will fit in narrow passageways of about 1 meter wide. When folded away, which is a “one click” operation, the Fold down takes up virtually no space whatsoever This is why they are so popular because the average space outside in the average home is shrinking. Most higher quality lines come with sheet separators for aided drying times and line tension locks for nice tight lines. Folding frame clotheslines have one advantage over Rotary style lines in that they have the same length lines from outside to inside which is great for lots of sheets. Some manufacturers Fold downs cannot fit queen size sheets on them so make sure that you buy a model that can if you need this.

The negatives.

Folding Frame Clotheslines don’t always have enough line space for large families but if chosen carefully they can full fill the requirements of the average household. The biggest Folding Frame clothesline with the most line space that i have seen is the Austral Addaline 35, with 35 meters of line space which is usually adequate. Some times two Fold Downs are needed to make up enough line space for the users needs. Fold downs don’t have metal wire lines, they use the PVC cord style lines which can stretch and don’t usually last as long. High quality brands usually have a tensioning device for tightening the lines. The lines are closer together than a Fixed Head Rotary and Folding Rotary.

Retractables at a glance.

  • Good line space.
  • Long and Narrow.
  • Out of sight.
  • 4 configurations.
  • Can droop.
  • Max/min length req.

Retractable Clothes Lines. Retractable clotheslines come as a cabinet with usually 4-6 cord style lines inside that retract out and attach onto a hook at the receiving end. Retractables can be used in four different configurations, A. Wall to Wall. B. Wall to Post. C. Post to Wall. D.Post to Post.

The positives.

Retractables are great for hiding the clothesline when not in use as they retract back into their cabinets and some higher quality units come with removable posts as optional and color co-ordination. Its always easy to find a spot to use a Retractable as they are generally only about 800mm wide and so wall space or garden space is usually in abundance. Retractables can pull out from their cabinets from just 1 meter up to about 10 meters. Some cheaper models have restrictions on the minimum and maximum retracting length requirements so make sure you research your product first to make sure that yours will do as you want it to. Retractables are great for narrow passageways and small areas. The line space varies obviously as the distance retracted is customizable to the users requirements. When fully extended, most quality Retractables have a line space of between 30 meters and 50 meters.

The negatives.

You really need to do your research on the brand you buy as their are literally hundreds of cheap nasty retractables around. Make sure you purchase one that has a metal cabinet as this is usually the first sign of quality. After this you will need to check on the Retractable minimum and maximum line extension capabilities. You don’t want a clothesline for a 4 meter span if it retracts a minimum of 4.5 meters or the other way around. Over larger distance the line tend to droop a bit and sheets can drag on the ground. Tip, always put your larger, heavier laundry items at either end of the clothes line rather than the middle.

Indoor Clothes Lines.

Indoor clotheslines are usually used for those rainy days or when you are living in an apartment block. These clothes lines are available as Free Standing Units, Ceiling Mounted and Wall Mounted. Some outdoor styles such as small fold downs can be used in laundries and garages. These are the most popular and are usually of a higher quality than the other styles. Ceiling mounted clotheslines are great for space saving as well, usually retracting back up to the ceiling when not in use. Free standing clotheslines usually collapse away to be stored when not in use and can be used outside as well. Most indoor clotheslines are very small in line space, light in construction and generally not as useful as an outdoor clothesline. The exception is the Fold down clothesline. Almost any size Fold down clothesline can fit in your garage providing excellent line space and out of sight drying.